SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13(a) OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
Commission file number 001-12284
GOLDEN STAR RESOURCES LTD.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
(Province or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial Classification Code)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
150 King Street West, Suite 1200
Toronto, Ontario M5H 1J9
(Address and Telephone Number of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)
Davis Graham & Stubbs LLP
1550 Seventeenth Street, Suite 500
Denver, Colorado 80202
(Name, address (including zip code) and telephone number (including area code) of agent for service in the United States)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, no par value
NYSE American; Toronto Stock Exchange
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
(Title of Class)
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
(Title of Class)
For annual reports, indicate by check mark the information filed with this Form:
x Annual information form x Audited annual financial statements
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common
stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
x Yes o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
x Yes o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Golden Star Resources Ltd. (the “Company” or “Golden Star”) is a Canadian issuer eligible to file its annual report pursuant to Section 13 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), on Form 40-F pursuant to the multi-jurisdictional disclosure system of the Exchange Act. The Company is a “foreign private issuer” as defined in Rule 3b-4 under the Exchange Act. Equity securities of the Company are accordingly exempt from Sections 14(a), 14(b), 14(c), 14(f) and 16 of the Exchange Act pursuant to Rule 3a12-3.
This Annual Report on Form 40-F and the exhibits attached hereto contain “forward-looking information” within the meaning of applicable Canadian securities laws and “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, concerning the business, operations and financial performance and condition of Golden Star and are based on expectations, estimates and projections as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 40-F. Forward-looking information and statements include, but are not limited to, information or statements with respect to: production and cash operating cost estimates; the intended expansion of production and reduction of costs; the impact of rain on our operations and exploration activities; estimated costs and timing of the development of new deposits and sources of funding for such development; the sources of gold production at Wassa Underground and Prestea Underground (each as defined in the “Overview of Golden Star” section below) during 2019; the timing for completion of mining from the Prestea open pits during 2019 and the processing of stockpiled ore therefrom; the mining rate and grade from Wassa Underground and the timing for accessing a higher grade area of the B-Shoot zone and larger stopes at Wassa Underground; the anticipated levels of sulphide minerals in the plant feed from Wassa Underground and any consequent detrimental metallurgical or mechanical properties from such ore; whether Wassa Underground’s production rate could be increased without the need to incur substantial capital expenditures for infrastructure upgrades; accessing the projected down plunge extension of the high grade West Reef ore body at Prestea Underground and consequent achievement of increased annual production rate of 90,000 ounces and increased mine life from 5.5 years; the ongoing drilling programs in the 242 footwall underground target at Wassa Underground; the ability and timing for the Company to transform into a lower cost producer and the resulting reduction in cash operating costs; the ability of the Company to repay the 7% Convertible Debentures when due or to restructure them or make alternate arrangements; the belief that the loss of the Company’s current customer would not materially delay or disrupt revenues; the granting of permits by the Government of Ghana in 2019 to permit exploration drilling on the Mansiso target; expansion drilling at Wassa Underground and Prestea Underground with a view to converting inferred mineral resources to indicated mineral resources; environmental impact of operations, including acid drainage generation and overall geochemical impact of mining the Prestea Underground West Reef stopes; completion, use and capacity of TSF2 (as defined in the “Wassa Gold Mine” section below); capital expenditures; government review of gold exploration areas; the mining laws, environmental laws and tax regime of Ghana; production capacity, rates and costs; currency exchange rate fluctuations; gold sales; mining operations and gold recovery rates; ore type, delivery and processing; use of waste rock; tailings processing; completion, use and capacity of TSF2 (as defined in the “Wassa Gold Mine” section below); potential mine life; strip ratios; permitting and approvals; rehabilitation; estimates of mineral reserves and mineral resources and assumptions relating thereto; geological, environmental, community and engineering studies; exploration efforts and activities; timing for commencing or completing drilling; updates to resource models; the potential to expand the mineral reserves of the Company through further drilling; the potential to increase the Company’s mineral resources outside of the existing mineral resource footprint; the impact that increased exploration is expected to have on mineral resources and mineral reserves; identification of acquisition and growth opportunities; relationships with local stakeholder communities; and our ability to meet our cash requirements.
Generally, forward-looking information and statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “plans”, “expects”, “is expected”, “budget”, “scheduled”, “estimates”, “forecasts”, “intends”, “anticipates”, “believes” or variations of such words and phrases (including negative or grammatical variations) or statements that certain actions, events or results “may”, “could”, “would”, “might” or “will” “be taken”, “occur”, “be achieved” or the negative connotation thereof.
Forward-looking information and statements are made based upon certain assumptions and other important factors that, if untrue, could cause the actual results, performance or achievements of Golden Star to be materially different from future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such statements. Such statements and information are based on numerous
assumptions regarding present and future business strategies and the environment in which Golden Star will operate in the future, including the price of gold, anticipated costs and ability to achieve goals.
Forward-looking information and statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, unexpected occurrences and other important factors that may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of Golden Star to be materially different from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking information and statements. The following, in addition to the factors described under the heading “Risk Factors” in the Annual Information Form for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 (“AIF”) and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 (“MD&A”), each of which is included as an exhibit to this report, are among the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements:
significant increases or decreases in gold prices and the speculative nature of gold exploration;
losses or gains in mineral reserves and mineral resources from changes in operating costs and/or gold prices;
failure of exploration efforts to expand mineral reserves and mineral resources around the Company’s existing mines;
unexpected changes in business and economic conditions;
inaccuracies in mineral reserves and mineral resources estimates;
changes in interest and currency exchange rates;
possible hedging activities;
timing and amount of gold production;
unanticipated variations in ore grade, tonnes mined and crushed or milled;
unanticipated recovery or production problems;
effects of illegal mining on the Company’s properties;
ability to, and cost of, dewatering the Company’s underground mines;
changes in mining and processing costs, including changes to costs of raw materials, supplies, services and personnel;
changes in metallurgy and processing;
availability of skilled personnel, contractors, materials, equipment, supplies, power and water;
changes in project parameters or mine plans;
costs and timing of development of mineral reserves;
weather, including drought or excessive rainfall in West Africa;
results of current and future exploration activities;
results of pending and future feasibility studies;
acquisitions and joint venture relationships;
political or economic instability, either globally or in the countries in which the Company operates;
changes in regulatory frameworks or regulations affecting the Company’s operations, particularly in Ghana, where its producing properties are located;
local and community impacts and issues;
availability and cost of replacing mineral reserves;
timing of receipt and maintenance of government approvals and permits;
unanticipated transportation costs, including shipping incidents and losses;
accidents, labour disputes and other operational hazards;
delays in obtaining government approvals or financing or in the completion of development or construction activities;
an inability to obtain power for operations on favorable terms or at all;
environmental (including reclamation) costs and risks;
changes in tax or labour laws;
competitive factors, including competition for property acquisitions;
availability of capital at reasonable rates or at all;
risks related to indebtedness and the service of such indebtedness;
changes in the Ghanaian Cedi and government policies regarding payments in foreign currency; and
changes to Golden Star’s mining licences, including revocation.
Although Golden Star has attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking information and statements, there may be other factors that cause results, performance or achievements not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking information and statements. Forward-looking information and statements are made as of the date hereof and accordingly are subject to change after such date. Except as otherwise indicated by Golden Star, these statements do not reflect the potential impact of any non-recurring or other special items or of any
dispositions, monetizations, mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations or other transactions that may be announced or that may occur after the date hereof. Forward-looking information and statements are provided for the purpose of providing information about management’s current expectations and plans and allowing investors and others to get a better understanding of our operating environment. Golden Star does not undertake to update any forward-looking information and statements that are included in this Annual Report on Form 40-F, except in accordance with applicable securities laws.
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING MINERAL RESERVES AND MINERAL RESOURCES
Certain technical information contained in this Annual Report on Form 40-F and the exhibits hereto concerning our properties and operations has been prepared in accordance with Canadian standards under applicable Canadian securities laws, which differ from the requirements of U.S. securities laws. The terms “Mineral Resource”, “Measured Mineral Resource”, “Indicated Mineral Resource” and “Inferred Mineral Resource” used in the exhibits hereto are Canadian mining terms as defined in accordance with National Instrument 43-101 - Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects (“NI 43-101”), and which have been calculated in accordance with the standards of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum and NI 43-101.
While the terms “Mineral Resource”, “Measured Mineral Resource”, “Indicated Mineral Resource” and “Inferred Mineral Resource” are recognized and required by Canadian securities regulations, they are not recognized by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Pursuant to United States standards as promulgated by the SEC under Industry Guide 7, mineralization may not be classified as a “reserve” unless the determination has been made that the mineralization could be economically and legally produced or extracted at the time the reserve determination is made. “Inferred Mineral Resource” has a great amount of uncertainty as to its existence, as to whether it can be mined and as to its economic and legal feasibility, except in rare cases. It cannot be assumed that all or any part of an “Inferred Mineral Resource” will ever be upgraded to a higher category. Under Canadian securities regulations, estimates of Inferred Mineral Resources may not form the basis of feasibility or other economic studies, except in rare cases. Readers are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of a “Measured Mineral Resource” or “Indicated Mineral Resource” will ever be converted into Mineral Reserves. Readers are also cautioned not to assume that all or any part of an “Inferred Mineral Resource” exists, or is economically or legally mineable. In addition, disclosure of “contained ounces” is permitted disclosure under Canadian regulations; however, the SEC only permits registrants to report SEC compliant reserves in ounces, and requires reporting of mineralization that does not qualify as reserves as in place tonnage and grade without reference to unit measures. As such, certain information contained in the exhibits hereto concerning descriptions of mineralization and resources under Canadian standards may not be comparable to similar information made public by United States companies subject to reporting and disclosure requirements of the SEC.
NYSE AMERICAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
The Company is subject to corporate governance requirements prescribed under applicable Canadian securities laws, rule and policies. The Company is also subject to corporate governance requirements prescribed by the listing standards of the NYSE American LLC (“NYSE American”), and the rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC under the Exchange Act (including those applicable rules and regulations mandated by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002).
Section 110 of the NYSE American Company Guide permits NYSE American to consider the laws, customs and practices of foreign issuers in relaxing certain NYSE American listing criteria, and to grant exemptions from NYSE American listing criteria based on these considerations. A company seeking relief under these provisions is required to provide written certification from independent local counsel that the non-complying practice is not prohibited by home country law. A description of the significant ways in which the Company’s governance practices differ from those followed by domestic companies pursuant to NYSE American standards is as follows:
Shareholder Vote Requirement: One significant manner in which the Company’s governance practices differ from those followed by U.S. domestic companies pursuant to NYSE American standards concerns shareholder approval requirements. Section 713 of the NYSE American Company Guide requires a listed company to obtain the approval of its shareholders for certain types of securities issuances, including private placements that may result in the issuance of common shares (or securities convertible into common shares) equal to 20% or more of the presently outstanding shares for less than the greater of book or market value of the shares. In general, there is no such requirement under the rules of the Canadian Business Corporation Act or under the rules of the Toronto Stock Exchange ("TSX") unless the transaction results in the issuance of common shares (or securities convertible or exercisable into common shares) equal to 25% or more of the currently issued and outstanding shares of the listed company or a change of control. Furthermore, under certain circumstances, the TSX may, pursuant to Section 604(e) of the TSX company guide, grant waivers to its shareholder approval requirements where the listed company would suffer financial hardship in complying with such requirements. The conditions under which the Toronto Stock Exchange grants such waivers from its shareholder approval requirements may depart from similar NYSE American waivers or exemptions, if any. The Company will seek a waiver from the
NYSE American’s shareholder approval requirements in circumstances where the securities issuance does not trigger such a requirement under the rules of the Canadian Business Corporation Act or under the rules of the TSX.
Shareholder Meeting Quorum Requirement: The NYSE American recommends a minimum quorum requirement for a shareholder meeting of one-third of the outstanding shares of common stock. In addition, a company listed on NYSE American is required to state its quorum requirement in its by-laws. In accordance with applicable laws in Canada, the Company’s quorum requirement is set forth in its by-laws, which provides that the quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of shareholders shall consist of two persons present in person, each being a shareholder entitled to vote thereat or a duly appointed proxyholder or representative for a shareholder so entitled.
Proxy Delivery Requirement: The NYSE American requires the solicitation of proxies and delivery of proxy statements for all shareholder meetings, and requires that these proxies shall be solicited pursuant to a proxy statement that conforms to SEC proxy rules. The Company is a “foreign private issuer” as defined in Rule 3b-4 under the Exchange Act, and the equity securities of the Company are accordingly exempt from the proxy rules set forth in Sections 14(a), 14(b), 14(c) and 14(f) of the Exchange Act. The Company solicits proxies in accordance with applicable rules and regulations in Canada.
The foregoing is consistent with the laws, customs and practices in Canada.
Copies of the Company’s corporate governance materials are available on the Company’s website at www.gsr.com. In addition, the Company is required by National Instrument 58-101 of the Canadian Securities Administrators, Disclosure of Corporate Governance Practices ("NI 58-101"), to describe its practices and policies with regard to corporate governance in management information circulars that are furnished to the Company’s shareholders in connection with annual meetings of shareholders.
Purchasing, holding, or disposing of securities of the Company may have tax consequences under the laws of the United States and Canada that are not described in this Annual Report on Form 40-F.
CURRENCY, EXCHANGE RATE AND OTHER INFORMATION
Unless otherwise indicated, all dollar amounts in this Annual Report on Form 40-F are in United States dollars. The exchange rate on March 28, 2019 as reported by the Bank of Canada for the conversion of Canadian dollars into United States dollars was Cdn$1.00 per $0.74 and the conversion of United States dollars was $1.00 per Cdn$1.34.
ANNUAL INFORMATION FORM
The Company’s AIF is filed as Exhibit 99.1 and incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 40-F.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS AND
CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Management’s Discussion and Analysis
The Company’s MD&A is filed as Exhibit 99.2 and incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 40-F.
Audited Consolidated Financial Statements
The Audited Consolidated Financial Statements, including the report of the independent registered public accounting firm with respect thereto, are filed as Exhibit 99.3 and incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 40-F.
The Company prepares its Consolidated Financial Statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS"), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. The audit of the consolidated financial statements are subject to the Rules of Professional Conduct of the Chartered Professional Accountants of Ontario, as well as the Standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and independence standards of the SEC. IFRS differs in some significant respects from generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, and thus the consolidated financial statements may not be comparable to financial statements of United States companies.
DISCLOSURE CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
The Company conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of its disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act) as of December 31, 2018. This evaluation was conducted under the supervision and with the participation of management, including the Company’s chief executive officer ("CEO") and chief financial officer ("CFO"). Based upon this evaluation, the Company’s CEO and CFO have concluded that, as of December 31, 2018, the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports filed or submitted under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified by the rules and forms of the SEC. The Company also concluded that its disclosure controls and procedures are effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in the reports filed or submitted under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its CEO and CFO, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
MANAGEMENT’S REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
The Company’s management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed by, or under the supervision of, the Company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer and effected by the Company’s board of directors, management and other personnel, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the financial statements for external purposes in accordance with IFRS. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements.
Management conducted an evaluation of the design and operation of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on the criteria set forth in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on this evaluation, management has concluded that the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2018.
The Company’s independent registered public accounting firm has issued an attestation report on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, included with the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements, which are filed as Exhibit 99.3 and incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 40-F.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
During the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 40-F, no change occurred in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Inherent Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. All internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, even those systems determined to be effective can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation. Additionally, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
NOTICES PURSUANT TO REGULATION BTR
There were no notices required by Rule 104 of Regulation BTR that the Company sent during the year ended December 31, 2018 concerning any equity security subject to a blackout period under Rule 101 of Regulation BTR.
The Company’s Board of Directors has a separately designated standing Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. The members of the Company’s Audit Committee are identified in the AIF, attached herewith as Exhibit 99.1 and incorporated by reference herein. In the opinion of the Company’s Board of Directors, all members of the Audit Committee are independent (as determined under Rule 10A-3 of the Exchange Act and the rules of the NYSE American) and are financially literate. In addition, the Company’s Board of Directors has determined that Robert E. Doyle, chairman of the Audit Committee is an “audit committee financial expert” as defined in Item 407(d)(5)(ii) of Regulation S-K under the Exchange Act.
CODE OF ETHICS
The Company has adopted a Code of Ethics entitled, “Golden Star Resources Ltd. Code of Ethics for Directors, Senior Executives and Financial Officers and Other Executive Officers” (“Ethics Code”). The Ethics Code was adopted pursuant to Section 406 of Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002, NI 58-101, National Policy 58-201 - Corporate Governance Guidelines, and the rules of the NYSE American, and other applicable corporate governance standards, to provide written standards and guidance for Golden Star’s directors, principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller and those performing similar functions to promote honest and ethical conduct and compliance with applicable law. The Ethics Code requires that individuals covered by its provisions report suspected violations to either of the Chairman of the Board or the Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, in his capacity as Compliance Officer, and that the Board and or Compliance Officer take appropriate action on any such reports.
The Company has also adopted a policy entitled “Business Code and Ethics Policy” (“Ethics Policy”). The Ethics Policy was adopted to affirm that the observance of applicable laws and ethical business conduct wherever Golden Star does business must be the guiding principle. The Ethic Policy contains Golden Star’s standards of behavior and guidelines that must be followed by all directors, officers, employees, consultants and other agents while making judgments or evaluating the judgments or actions of others as to what constitutes ethical business conduct in any particular situation. Pursuant to the Ethics Policy, any employee who feels that the policy is not being adhered to, in any respect, by any other employee should promptly report all pertinent details to the Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, in his capacity as Compliance Officer.
All amendments and waivers of the Ethics Code and Ethics Policy will be posted on the Company’s website or submitted on Form 6-K. Each of the Ethics Code and Ethics Policy is located on the Company’s website at www.gsr.com. During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, the Company did not substantively amend, waive or implicitly waive any provision of the Ethics Code or Ethics Policy with respect to any of the directors, executive officers or employees subject to it.
PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES
The disclosure provided under the headings “Pre-Approval Policies and Procedures” and “External Auditor Service Fees” contained in the AIF as Exhibit 99.1 and as filed with this Annual Report on Form 40-F contains the Company’s disclosure regarding its principal accountant fees and services and pre-approval policies and procedures and is incorporated by reference herein.
OFF-BALANCE SHEET TRANSACTIONS
The Company does not have any off-balance sheet financing arrangements or relationships with unconsolidated special purpose entities.
The information provided under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis - Table of Contractual Obligations” contained in Exhibit 99.2 as filed with this Annual Report on Form 40-F contains the Company’s disclosure of contractual obligations and is incorporated by reference herein.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE
The Company undertakes to make available, in person or by telephone, representatives to respond to inquiries made by the SEC staff, and to furnish promptly, when requested to do so by the SEC staff, information relating to: the securities registered pursuant to Form 40-F; the securities in relation to which the obligation to file an Annual Report on Form 40-F arises; or transactions in said securities.
CONSENT TO SERVICE OF PROCESS
The Company has filed an Appointment of Agent for Service of Process and Undertaking on Form F-X with respect to the class of securities in relation to which the obligation to file the Form 40-F arises.
Description of Exhibits
Annual Information Form of the Company for the year ended December 31, 2018
Management's Discussion and Analysis for the year ended December 31, 2018
Annual Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2018, together with the report of the independent registered public accounting firm thereon
Certifications of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) and Rule 15d-14(a) of the Exchange Act, pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
Certifications of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) and Rule 15d-14(a) of the Exchange Act, pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
Certificate of Principal Executive Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 1350 , as enacted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes‑Oxley Act of 2002
Certificate of Principal Financial Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 1350, as enacted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes‑Oxley Act of 2002
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consent of Dr. Martin Raffield
Consent of S. Mitch Wasel
Consent of Michael Beare
Consent of Rod Redden
Consent of Neil Marshall
Consent of Chris Bray
Consent of Paul Riley
Pursuant to the requirements of the Exchange Act, the Registrant certifies that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form 40-F and has duly caused this annual report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereto duly authorized.
GOLDEN STAR RESOURCES LTD.
/s/ P. André van Niekerk
P. André van Niekerk
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
March 29, 2019